19. Formation of coloured ions of of d-block elements: An electron jumps from one d-orbital to another. Solution: Option (ii) is the answer . Coloured compounds in transition-series metal compounds is generally due to electronic transition of two types: charge transfer transition, or metal-to ligand charge transfer. Question 23. 4. Transition Metal Ions. Most of the transition metal compounds are colored in their solid or solution form. Which of the following compounds are coloured? asked Aug 8, 2018 in Chemistry by Anukriti bharti ( 38.1k points) the d- and f- block elements These elements form coloured compounds and ions. Answer/Explanation. form coloured compounds (e.g. The colour in the transition metals (d-block) is usually due to the 'splitting' of the 'd' shell orbitals into slightly different energy levels. These can most easily occur when the metal is in a high oxidation state. This colour is explained by the d-d transition of electrons. The transition metals form colored ions, complexes, and compounds in aqueous solution. There is a relatively low gap in energy between the possible oxidation states of these elements. The transition elements, therefore, exhibit many oxidation states. The characteristic colors are helpful when performing a qualitative analysis to identify the composition of a sample. For example, the colour of chromate, dichromate and permanganate ions is due to LMCT transitions. As an example, iron commonly forms two different ions. More about d-d transitions: An electron jumps from one d-orbital to another. During this d-d transition process, the electrons absorb certain energy from the radiation and emit the remainder of energy as colored light. On addition of a small amount of KMnO4 to concentrated H2SO4, a green oily compound is The colors also reflect interesting chemistry that occurs in transition metals. copper(II) carbonate is green) You’ll notice under ‘formation of ions’ that the transition metals react to form ions with different charges . The color of ion is complementary of the color absorbed by it. The color of transition metal ions is due to the presence of unpaired electrons in it and the energy gap between two energy levels in the same d-subshell being small. In complexes of the transition metals the d orbitals do not all have the same energy. Question 22. Generally transition elements form coloured salts due to the presence of unpaired electrons. Most transition metals differ from the metals of Groups 1, 2, and 13 in that they are capable of forming more than one cation with different ionic charges. Which of the following compounds will be coloured insolid -state? Answer: b Explaination: (b) CUF 2 is coloured due to presence ofunpaired electron in d-orbital. (i) Ag2SO4 (ii) CuF2 (iii) ZnF2 (iv) Cu2Cl2 . Which of the following compounds will be coloured in solid state? Generally, transition-elements and their salts are coloured due to the presence of unpaired electrons in metal ions. (a) kMnO 4 (b) Ce(SO 4) 2 (c) TiCl 4 (d) Cu 2 Cl 2 Solution: (a, b) KMnO 4 and Ce(S0 4) 2 are coloured due to charge transfer. 5. These properties of the transition elements are listed below. (NCERT Exemplar] (a) Ag 2 SO 4 (b) CuF 2 (c) ZnF 2 (d) Cu 2 Cl 2. Generally, transition elements form coloured salts due to the presence of unpaired electrons. It can sometimes lose two electrons to form the \(\ce{Fe^{2+}}\) ion, while at other times it loses three electrons to form the \(\ce{Fe^{3+}}\) ion. 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