Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements Group 17 Elements: The Halogens The elements in Group 17 are: Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine These elements are known as halogens. Depending on who you ask, there are either 5 or 6 halogens. It is a corrosive and highly toxic gas. As a diatomic molecule, fluorine has the weakest bond due to repulsion between electrons of the small atoms. … Thus in Groups 14,15 and 16 the first elements C, N and O are non-metals, but the heavier members Sn, Pb, Bi and Po are metals. Fluorine is a pale yellow gas, chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas, bromine is a deep reddish-brown liquid, and iodine is a grayish-black crystalline solid. Halogens like fluorine, bromine and chlorine are poisonous in nature, each having different levels of toxicity. The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. The group of halogen Common Properties of Halogens Halogens are highly reactive can be found in many minerals and in seawater. It includes elements that occur in three different states of matter at room temperature.Fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid, and iodine and astatine are solids.Halogens also vary in color, as you can see in the Figure below.Fluorine and chlorine are green, bromine is red, and iodine and astatine are nearly black. As expected, these elements have certain properties in common. They have relatively low melting and boiling points that increase steadily down the group. Today the two in between: bromine and iodine. They readily combine with metals to form salts. Halogens are diatomic when kept under room temperature. Halogens are nonmetals. Group 17 is therefore the only periodic table group exhibiting all three states of matter at room temperature. They are all fairly toxic. 6 Comments. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogens They are located to the right of the other nonmetals and to the left of the noble gases. Electronegativity depends upon the attraction between the nucleus and bonding electrons in the outer shell. Fluorine’s reactivity means that once it does react with something, it bonds so strongly that the resulting molecule is inert and non-reactive. Properties of the Halogens. I have previously posted fluorine and chlorine, the two elements at the top of Group VII - the halogens - and astatine near the bottom. Group 17 is therefore the only periodic table group exhibiting all three states of matter at room temperature. Liquid bromine has a high vapor pressure, and the reddish vapor is readily visible in Figure 18.60. Halogens can gain an electron by reacting with atoms of other elements. The Halogens. The artificially created element 117, tennessine, may also be a halogen. Wikipedia This fact makes them a very reactive group of elements, and many believe that these are the most reactive family of elements found in nature. Halogens show very smooth variations in their physical properties. They produce salts with sodium , of which table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is the most well-known. There are either five or six halogen elements, depending on how strictly … As expected, these elements have certain properties in common. This means the shared electrons are further from the halogen nucleus, which increases the shielding of inner electrons. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons or electron density towards itself within a covalent bond. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level_Chemistry/AQA/Module_2/Group_VII:_The_Halogens%23Physical_Properties (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The halogens are a series of non-metal elements from group 17 of the periodic table (formerly VII). Types of Halogens . 1 Properties of Halogens. The halogens include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). Some chemical and physical properties of the halogens are summarized in Table \(\PageIndex{1}\). So these elements require only one electron to complete the octet. They gain electrons very fast making them most reactive of all chemical elements. They share similar chemical properties. There are six elements in Group VIIA, the next-to-last column of the periodic table. Properties of the Halogens \n Fluorine is a pale yellow gas, chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas, bromine is a deep reddish-brown liquid, and iodine is a grayish-black crystalline solid. Liquid bromine has a high vapor pressure, and the reddish vapor is readily visible in . They all form diatomic molecules (H 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2, and At 2), for example, and they all form negatively charged ions (H-, F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and At-). These atoms need one more electron in order to have a stable octet. In hydrogen halides (HX, where X is the halogen), the H-X bond gets longer as the halogen atoms get larger. Liquid bromine has a high vapor pressure, and the reddish vapor is readily visible in (Figure 3.12.1). 5 Referencing this Article. Typical to non-metals, halogens have very low melting and boiling points. Halogens are very reactive, the reactivity decreases from fluorine to astatine. The covalent bond between the two atoms has some ionic character, the less electronegative halogen, X, being oxidised and having a partial positive charge. CC BY-SA. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogen It slowly reacts to form hydrogen bromide (HBr) and hypobromous acid (HBrO): [latex]Br_2 (g) + H_2O (l) \rightarrow HBr (aq) + HBrO (aq)[/latex]. This particular resource used the following sources: http://www.boundless.com/ Liquid bromine has a high vapor pressure, and the reddish vapor is readily visible in the figure below. It reacts with otherwise inert materials such as glass, and it forms compounds with the heavier noble gases. Shows both the reactions and properties of some chemical elements. Electronegativity. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/halogen It can be seen that there is a regular increase in many of the properties of the halogens proceeding down group 17 from fluorine to iodine. 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